Bubonic plague was known in Medieval times as The Black Death
human outbreaks still occur today occasionally in parts of Africa, Asia and America
Plague bacteria are a potential bioterrorist weapon

Bubonic Plague Bacteria Found in Texas - May 2004
(Press release from the Texas Department of Health)


The Texas Department of Health (TDH) confirmed on May 5th 2004 that Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes bubonic plague, has been detected in wood rats found dead in a rural location near the Midland-Glasscock counties border in West Texas and in fleas from wild prairie dogs in Dallam County in the Texas Panhandle.

TDH zoonosis control officials said it is not unusual to have plague in wild rodents in the western United States, including the western part of Texas.

Plague occasionally cycles through the wild rodent population, sometimes causing large die-offs of rats, prairie dogs and other rodents, said Tom Sidwa, Austin, acting director of TDHs zoonosis control program.

Plague is usually spread by fleas that have bitten an infected rodent. The illness can be transmitted to dogs, cats and humans. Plague in humans can be effectively treated with antibiotics if detected early, Sidwa said. Infection also can occur by breathing in respiratory droplets from a live animal that has the pneumonic form of the illness.

The last recorded human case of plague in Texas was in 1993 in a Kent County resident. An average of 13 human cases a year occur in the United States.

TDH is issuing a plague advisory to veterinarians and physicians in the West Texas, Panhandle and South Plains areas of the state and reminding the public to take routine precautions to reduce the chances of being bitten by an infected flea. The public is asked to report large die-offs of rodents to public health officials.

Personal precautions include: removing food and shelter sources for rodents around homes, work sites and recreational areas; using safe insecticides to kill fleas around property; applying a DEET-containing repellent to exposed skin and clothing when in flea-inhabited areas, especially when camping or in other rodent-inhabited areas; and treating pets with long-acting flea control products.

TDH also advises wearing gloves if its necessary to handle an animal that could have plague. Because some rodents also carry hantavirus, rodent nests in closed-in areas should be aired out before removal, and any rodent nests and droppings should be wetted-down with a 10 percent bleach-90 percent water solution before removing.


Bubonic Plague Epidemics
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Yersinia pestis - Bubonic Plague Bacteria
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